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[Intrarectal administration of quinine: an early treatment for severe malaria in children?]

Author(s): Barennes H, Kailou D, Pussard E, Munjakazi JM, Fernan M, Sherouat H, Sanda A, Clavier F, Verdier F

Affiliation(s): Centre Muraz, BP 153, Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. barenness@fasonet.bf

Publication date & source: 2001-07, Sante., 11(3):145-53.

Publication type: Clinical Trial; Comparative Study ; English Abstract; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Delay for treatment of severe malaria is the cause of an important childhood mortality in Africa especially in rural zone when health facilities and accessibility are scarce. Intrarectal treatment is of particular interest in children as a non aggressive, painless and easy treatment. It can be used as early treatment and could decrease the lethality of severe malaria. We recently showed the kinetic profile, the optimal regimen and the clinical efficacy of intrarectal quinine (QIR) using Quinimax (Sanofi, Gentilly France) 20 mg/kg in solution with 2 ml of water. From 1994 to 1996 two open clinical trials were performed in Niger in children (2-15 years). QIR was compared with intraveinous infusion in cerebral malaria (n = 76) and with intramuscular quinine in severe malaria (n = 57). A three daily QIR administration (20 mg/kg followed by 15 mg/kg/8 h) was used in cerebral malaria; a two daily administration in severe malaria (30 mg/kg followed by 20 mg/kg/12 h). Symptomatic treatment was associated for hyperthermia, hypoglycemia, anemia and seizures. Results. In the cerebral malaria study 58 children presented a Blantyre coma score below 3. Four children in the IR group and 9 children in the infusion group died (P > 0.05). Evolution was similar in both treatment groups: temperature clearance (< 37.5 degrees C) 39.0 +/- 15.2 h and 37.1 +/- 16.5 h; return to consciousness 34.6 +/- 12.8 h and 33.0 +/- 14.1 h; decrease to 50% of the initial parasites count: 15.5 +/- 11.5 h and 13.8 +/- 10.0 h. Residual blood quinine concentrations at 48 hours were similar 7.4 +/- 3.7 mg/l and 7.2 +/- 2.9 mg/l. In the severe malaria study, the mortality was 0 and 7.6% in the QIR and IM group respectively (P > 0.005). Evolution was similar in both treatment groups: temperature clearance (< 37.5 degrees C) 38.7 +/- 22.8 h and 38.6 +/- 22.2 h; return to consciousness 26.8 +/- 13.9 h and 27.6 +/- 9.9 h for the 16 children in coma. The evolution under QIR treatment was also similar with that described with the other quinine routes. QIR allows an efficious treatment particularly when correct infusion cannot be performed. The efficacy, the simplicity and the good tolerance of QIR are of major concern to decrease the mortality of severe malaria due to delay for treatment and to decrease the side-effects due to intramuscular administrations of quinine in Africa.

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