Efficacy of a low-dose spinal morphine with bupivacaine for postoperative analgesia in children undergoing hypospadias repair.
Author(s): Apiliogullari S, Duman A, Gok F, Akillioglu I, Ciftci I
Affiliation(s): Assistant Professor in Anesthesiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey. firstname.lastname@example.org
Publication date & source: 2009-11, Paediatr Anaesth., 19(11):1078-83. Epub 2009 Aug 25.
BACKGROUND: Children undergoing hypospadias repair need to be protected from highly unpleasant sensory and emotional experiences during and after surgery. We designed a double-blinded, randomized, and placebo-controlled study to compare the efficacy of a low-dose (2 microg x kg(-1)) of intrathecal morphine with placebo for postoperative pain control of children undergoing repair of hypospadias surgery with spinal anesthesia. METHODS: Fifty-four children were randomly assigned to one of two spinal anesthesia groups. Group M (n = 27) received hyperbaric bupivacaine plus 2 microg x kg(-1) of preservative-free morphine and group P (n = 27) received hyperbaric bupivacaine plus 0.9% NaCl (placebo) under inhalation anesthesia. General anesthetics were discontinued subsequent to the block. The primary outcome was the presence of pain-requiring analgesics during the first 12 h after the spinal block. Side effects were also recorded. The analgesic effects were evaluated by using the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale. RESULTS: Forty-nine patients completed the trial. Fifteen patients (60%) in group P received supplementary analgesics within the first 12 h compared to only four patients (16.7%) in group M (P = 0.005). Mean duration of analgesia was 480 +/- 209 and 720 +/- 190 min in group P and group M respectively (P = 0.009). The groups were similar in postoperative side effects. CONCLUSION: Spinal anesthesia provided by hyperbaric bupivacaine is adequate for distal hypospadias repair in children, but adding 2 microg x kg(-1) intrathecal morphine provides better postoperative pain control when compared to placebo in these children.