Etanercept, mycophenolate, denileukin, or pentostatin plus corticosteroids for acute graft-versus-host disease: a randomized phase 2 trial from the Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network.
Author(s): Alousi AM, Weisdorf DJ, Logan BR, Bolanos-Meade J, Carter S, Difronzo N, Pasquini M, Goldstein SC, Ho VT, Hayes-Lattin B, Wingard JR, Horowitz MM, Levine JE, Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network
Affiliation(s): Department of Stem Cell Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd., Houston, TX 77030, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Publication date & source: 2009-07-16, Blood., 114(3):511-7. Epub 2009 May 14.
Publication type: Clinical Trial, Phase II; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is the primary limitation of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Corticosteroids remain the standard initial therapy, yet only 25% to 41% of patients completely respond. This randomized, 4-arm, phase 2 trial was designed to identify the most promising agent(s) for initial therapy for aGVHD. Patients were randomized to receive methylprednisolone 2 mg/kg per day plus etanercept, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), denileukin diftitox (denileukin), or pentostatin. Patients (n = 180) were randomized; their median age was 50 years (range, 7.5-70 years). Myeloablative conditioning represented 66% of transplants. Grafts were peripheral blood (61%), bone marrow (25%), or umbilical cord blood (14%); 53% were from unrelated donors. Patients who received MMF for prophylaxis (24%) were randomized to a non-MMF arm. At randomization, aGVHD was grade I to II (68%), III to IV (32%), and (53%) had visceral organ involvement. Day 28 complete response rates were etanercept 26%, MMF 60%, denileukin 53%, and pentostatin 38%. Corresponding 9-month overall survival was 47%, 64%, 49%, and 47%, respectively. Cumulative incidences of severe infections were as follows: etanercept 48%, MMF 44%, denileukin 62%, and pentostatin 57%. Efficacy and toxicity data suggest the use of MMF plus corticosteroids is the most promising regimen to compare against corticosteroids alone in a definitive phase 3 trial. This study is registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00224874.