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A tubule cell model for ifosfamide nephrotoxicity.

Author(s): Aleksa K, Halachmi N, Ito S, Koren G

Affiliation(s): Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Publication date & source: 2005-06, Can J Physiol Pharmacol., 83(6):499-508.

Publication type: Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Mechanisms leading to ifosfamide (IF)-induced renal damage have not been fully elucidated. Recent work suggests that localized renal tubular metabolism of IF and the production of the nephrotoxic chloroacetaldehyde may lead to nephrotoxicity. Presently no pharmacological method to reduce IF nephrotoxicity has been identified. The objectives of this study were to establish a tubule cell model for IF nephrotoxicity, to verify whether renal proximal tubular cells have the necessary cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes to oxidize IF, and whether they can metabolize IF to chloroacetaldehyde. CYP3A, and 2B mRNA and protein were identified in LLCPK-1 cells. The cells metabolized the R- and S-IF enantiomers to their respective 2- and 3-dechloroethylifosfamide metabolites, by-products of chloroacetaldehyde formation. Metabolite production was both time and concentration-dependent. IF did not affect cell viability. In contrast, glutathione-depleted cells showed time and dose-dependent damage. The presence of the relevant CYP enzymes in renal tubular cells along with their ability to metabolize IF to its 2- and 3-dechloroethylifosfamide metabolites suggests that nephrotoxic damage may result from the localized production of chloroacetaldehyde. Glutathione is a major defence mechanism against IF toxicity, thus pharmacological methods for replenishing intracellular glutathione may be effective in modulating IF-induced nephrotoxicity.

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