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Enalapril and hydrochlorothiazide in hypertensive Africans.

Author(s): Ajayi AA, Oyewo EA, Ladipo GO, Akinsola A

Affiliation(s): Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

Publication date & source: 1989, Eur J Clin Pharmacol., 36(3):229-34.

Publication type: Clinical Trial; Randomized Controlled Trial

The antihypertensive efficacy both of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and thiazide diuretics has been claimed to be influenced by plasma renin activity, which declines with age and is low in blacks. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, double-dummy, randomized, parallel-group preliminary study, the antihypertensive efficacy and tolerability of the ACE inhibitor enalapril (20 mg day-1) and hydrochlorothiazide (50 mg day-1) were evaluated and compared for 4 weeks in 20 African patients with essential hypertension. The two groups had similar baseline clinical features and serum Na+ and K+ levels. Hydrochlorothiazide caused a significant and sustained fall in erect blood pressure with a reflex tachycardia. Enalapril exerted only a modest antihypertensive action, but significantly reduced erect heart rate. Direct comparison of hydrochlorothiazide- and enalapril-induced hypotension suggested a greater fall in subjects on the thiazide. The 95% confidence limits for the thiazide-enalapril difference in antihypertensive action at the end of the study was 39.5 to -7.5 mm Hg systolic and 22.0 to -6.6 mm Hg diastolic. The maximal blood pressure fall after hydrochlorothiazide was positively correlated with age (r = 0.50; p less than 0.05), whilst that of enalapril was inversely related age to (r = -0.57, p less than 0.05). The results are compatible with the notion that ACE inhibitor monotherapy may be less effective than thiazide diuretic treatment in African and black patients with essential hypertension. The findings also support the concept that age and racial factors may influence the response to antihypertensive treatment.

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